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Servo Control using Beaglebone Black with Ubuntu

We are currently working on a pan/tilt camera project and are experimenting with a servo motor. This posting is an on going trial and error project using the Beaglebone Black microcontroller loaded with Ubuntu to run a micro servo motor. Micro servo motors are used in basic electronic projects when limited motion is necessary, while we are focusing mainly on the pan/tilt for a camera the applications are very broad in scope. This is an intermediate skill level project and we recommend going at this project with a heightened sense of care as there is a high risk of frying your micro controller/motor

 

Recently, I bought a Radio Shack Micro Servo (Part Number 2730765), and am using the Beaglebone Black loaded with Ubuntu to control the Servo.  I used pin 13 on the P8 header (P8_13), which is a pulse width modulation (PWM) pin.  I am still trying to figure out exactly how everything works, but wanted to provide updates along the way on my progress.

The first thing that I did on the Beaglebone Black was to install the Adafruit IO python library.

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install build-essential python-dev python-setuptools python-pip python-smbus -y

After you run those 2 commands, you are ready to install the Adafruit_BBIO library.  Run the following code, and make sure it installs with no errors.

sudo pip install Adafruit_BBIO

When i ran this code, it came back with an error similar to the one below:

The required version of distribute (>=0.6.24) is not available, and can't be installed while this script is running. Please install a more recent version first, using 'easy_install -U distribute'.

I ran the command ‘easy_install -U distribute’, and then reran the command sudo pip install Adafruit_BBIO.  This seemed to do the trick and worked for me.

 

THE FOLLOWING SECTION IS ALL OF THE TESTING I HAVE DONE.  I KILLED ONE SERVO MOTOR ALREADY, AND THEREFORE TAKE NO RESPONSIBILITY OR LIABILITY FOR ANYTHING THAT HAPPENS TO YOURS.  REMEMBER THAT I AM STILL GOING THROUGH MY OWN LEARNING CURVE.

From what I have learned through my trial and error phase is that there are 2 main variables that control the speed and positioning of the Servo motor.  They are seemingly dependent from one in other.  By that, I mean that changing one of the variables will effect the other.  The 2 variables that I have been playing with is the Duty Cycle and Frequency.  I recommend having a fixed Frequency (ie I used 10Hz for my frequency, since the speed of the servo spinning was low enough that I could try and unplug it before the servo broke.  The other variable, the Duty Cycle, is something I am still trying to figure out.

I used the breadboard schematic from the Adafruit website (https://learn.adafruit.com/controlling-a-servo-with-a-beaglebone-black/wiring) to hook up the servo to the Beaglebone Black.

NOTE: DO NOT WIRE THE SERVO’S POWER DIRECTLY TO THE BEAGLEBONE (P9_5/6). I TRIED TO DO THIS THE FIRST TIME AND FRIED MY BEAGLEBONE. IT WILL NOT POWER ON, AND IS NOW A PAPERWEIGHT.

 

Since I didn’t initially have a female terminal adapter like the one pictured above, I was able to desolder and tear the 5V power terminal off my new paperweight, and solder leads from the Positive and Ground pins of the terminal.  My advice, however, would to be to go online or to your local electronics store and purchase one of these adapters, since they are a lot cheaper than the cost of a Beaglebone.

I also discovered that the ground from the Servo and Power Supply into the Beaglebone Black was essential.  My servo did nothing without it plugged in.

The first step for my trials was to try and figure out where my boundaries were on my 180 degree servo.  I went to the command line and started python:

sudo python

This command starts up python.  The next step I did was import the Adafruit library.  From the python command line, type python and hit enter.  You should see something like this:

ubuntu@TinkerNow:~$ python
Python 2.7.5+ (default, Feb 27 2014, 20:07:18)
[GCC 4.8.1] on linux2
Type “help”, “copyright”, “credits” or “license” for more information.
>>>

Once you are in the python shell, we need to import the Adafruit PWM library.  To do this, type in import Adafruit_BBIO.PWM as PWM and hit enter.  Your terminal should now look like this:

ubuntu@TinkerNow:~$ python
Python 2.7.5+ (default, Feb 27 2014, 20:07:18)
[GCC 4.8.1] on linux2
Type “help”, “copyright”, “credits” or “license” for more information.
>>> import Adafruit_BBIO.PWM as PWM
>>>

AFTER THIS IS WHERE YOU SHOULD PROCEED AT YOUR OWN RISK.  I WILL EXPLAIN WHAT I DID TO GET MINE TO WORK, BUT I MAKE NO PROMISES OR GUARANTEES THAT IT WILL WORK FOR YOUR SERVO.

Next we are going to start our PWM pin on our Beaglebone.  The command is PWM.start(“Channel”, duty cycle, Frequency, Polarity) However, I haven’t messed around with the Polarity variable.  The frequency that I have been playing around with, like I have previously mentioned is 10 Hz.  I don’t know if this hurts the servo that is rated at 50 Hz, but it seemed to work well.

When starting the PWM pin (P8_13) at 10 Hz, my working duty cycle range for the 2 different models of servos I have yet to break are both between 0.8 and 2.5.  What I did was input 1 as the duty cycle and as soon as you hit enter, be ready to pull the power on your servo motor.

This was what my test looked like for finding the range at 50 Hz.  Note that the last 2 duty cycles I entered are what I determined was my duty cycle range (4.6 – 12.35):

Python 2.7.5+ (default, Feb 27 2014, 20:07:18)
[GCC 4.8.1] on linux2
Type “help”, “copyright”, “credits” or “license” for more information.
>>> import Adafruit_BBIO.PWM as PWM
>>> PWM.stop(“P8_13”)      #Start with stop command. If duty cycle is too high, simply push up arrow and enter.
>>> PWM.start(“P8_13”, 1.2, 50)   #tried 1.2 first, was too high, so stopped it quickly.
>>> PWM.stop(“P8_13”)
>>> PWM.start(“P8_13”, 35, 50)
>>> PWM.stop(“P8_13”)
>>> PWM.start(“P8_13”, 30, 50)
>>> PWM.stop(“P8_13”)
>>> PWM.start(“P8_13”, 25, 50)
>>> PWM.stop(“P8_13”)
>>> PWM.start(“P8_13”, 20, 50)
>>> PWM.stop(“P8_13”)
>>> PWM.start(“P8_13”, 15, 50)
>>> PWM.stop(“P8_13”)
>>> PWM.start(“P8_13”, 12, 50)
>>> PWM.start(“P8_13”, 12.5, 50)
>>> PWM.start(“P8_13”, 12.6, 50)
>>> PWM.start(“P8_13”, 12.7, 50)
>>> PWM.start(“P8_13”, 12.8, 50)
>>> PWM.start(“P8_13”, 12.7, 50
>>> PWM.start(“P8_13”, 12.6, 50)
>>> PWM.start(“P8_13”, 12.5, 50)
>>> PWM.start(“P8_13”, 4.6, 50)
>>> PWM.start(“P8_13”, 12.5, 50)
>>> PWM.start(“P8_13”, 12.5, 50)
>>> PWM.start(“P8_13”, 12.4, 50)
>>> PWM.start(“P8_13”, 4.6, 50)
>>> PWM.start(“P8_13”, 12.4, 50)
>>> PWM.start(“P8_13”, 4.6, 50)
>>> PWM.start(“P8_13”, 12.35, 50)
>>> PWM.start(“P8_13”, 4.6, 50)
>>> PWM.start(“P8_13”, 12.35, 50)
>>> PWM.start(“P8_13”, 4.6, 50)
>>> PWM.start(“P8_13”, 12.35, 50)
>>> PWM.start(“P8_13”, 4.6, 50)
>>> PWM.start(“P8_13”, 12.35, 50)
>>> PWM.start(“P8_13”, 4.6, 50)

As you can see, I started with 1.2, but started to grind the gears so I stopped the process quickly.  I then tried another random number (35) and it was too high.  I stepped down by 5 until I got to 10 (some of the code was cut out to save space on this post.  Once i got to 10, I incremented up by 1 until I got back up to 13 (which started grinding gears again) and then went back down by 0.1 (12.9, 12.8…) until I got around 12.6.  It initially stopped grinding, but as you can see, when I would command a big duty cycle difference (4.6 to 12.6) I could hold it and feel it trying to go past its limit.  This is a good exercise to figure out your servos range.

As I previously stated, my servos effective range at 10 Hz was 0.8 and 2.5.  When doing very basic calculations (it is late on a Friday afternoon at work), you can see a pretty linear relationship between the 2 ranges, when the Hz is multiplied by 5.  I realize its not exact, but neither is my range, it is has been estimated to 0.1.  Doing even more basic calculations, at 50 hz each degree of travel is approximately 0.045 duty cycle, meaning that I would have to do the same testing as above but at the thousandths level to get a more precise range.  Good enough for a Friday afternoon, right?

Next, I wrote a simple script to make sure that my findings were correct.  The purpose of this test was to watch the servo step incrementally, and watch the print out of where it started to grind gears.


import Adafruit_BBIO.PWM as PWM
import time
import sys

f=2.5
fskip=0.1
PWM.start("P8_13", f, 10)
for x in range(0, 45):
    f=f-fskip
    print x;
    print f;
    PWM.set_duty_cycle("P8_13", f)
    time.sleep(.5)

Once I established that again, I created the IF expression to kill the FOR loop it was running (break).

import Adafruit_BBIO.PWM as PWM
import time
import sys

f=2.5
fskip=0.1
PWM.start("P8_13", f, 10)
for x in range(0, 45):
    f=f-fskip
    print x;
    print f;
    PWM.set_duty_cycle("P8_13", f)
    time.sleep(.5)
    if f < 0.75:
       break

After that, I wrote the second FOR loop to climb back to the starting point.  Again, I created the IF statement to kill the FOR loop.


for x in range(0, 45):
    f=f+fskip
    print x;
    print f;
    PWM.set_duty_cycle("P8_13", f)
    time.sleep(.5)
    if (f>2.4):
       PWM.stop("P8_13")
       PWM.cleanup()
       break

Lastly, I added a couple more lines of code to make sure that I had a grasp on the servo control.

PWM.start("P8_13", 2.5, 10)
time.sleep(.5)

PWM.set_duty_cycle("P8_13", 1.5)
time.sleep(1)

PWM.set_duty_cycle("P8_13", 2.5)
time.sleep(1)

PWM.set_duty_cycle("P8_13", 1.5)
time.sleep(1)

PWM.stop("P8_13")
PWM.cleanup()

Here is the final code all put together

import Adafruit_BBIO.PWM as PWM
import time
import sys
f=2.5
fskip=0.1
PWM.start("P8_13", f, 10)
for x in range(0, 45):
        f=f-fskip
        print x;
        print f;
        PWM.set_duty_cycle("P8_13", f)
        time.sleep(.5)
        if (f<0.75):
                break

for x in range(0, 45):
        f=f+fskip
        print x;
        print f;
        PWM.set_duty_cycle("P8_13", f)
        time.sleep(.5)
        if (f>2.4):
                PWM.stop("P8_13")
                PWM.cleanup()
                break

PWM.start("P8_13", 2.5, 10)
time.sleep(.5)

PWM.set_duty_cycle("P8_13", 1.5)
time.sleep(1)

PWM.set_duty_cycle("P8_13", 2.5)
time.sleep(1)

PWM.set_duty_cycle("P8_13", 1.5)
time.sleep(1)

PWM.stop("P8_13")
PWM.cleanup()

Once I got that up and running, I changed the values of the Frequency and Duty Cycle for 50 Hz.

import Adafruit_BBIO.PWM as PWM
import time
import sys
f=12
fskip=0.5
PWM.start("P8_13", f, 50)
for x in range(0, 45):
        f=f-fskip
        print x;
        print f;
        PWM.set_duty_cycle("P8_13", f)
        time.sleep(.5)
        if (f<5):
                break

for x in range(0, 45):
        f=f+fskip
        print x;
        print f;
        PWM.set_duty_cycle("P8_13", f)
        time.sleep(.5)
        if (f>12):
                PWM.stop("P8_13")
                PWM.cleanup()
                break

PWM.start("P8_13", 12, 50)
time.sleep(.5)

That’s all for right now.  Please leave your questions and comments below.  Sign up for free to view content only available to our users!

-Brian with TinkerNow

212 Responses to Servo Control using Beaglebone Black with Ubuntu

  1. frederickbryan January 1, 2015 at 5:24 pm #

    Hey man, I registered on Tinkernow because I think you need to see this:
    http://www.parallax.com/sites/default/files/downloads/900-00005-Standard-Servo-Product-Documentation-v2.2.pdf
    It’s the datasheet to that servo you show above.
    Read down through the first page and a half. After that, it talks about how to use it with some other processor which you don’t have, so you don’t care.

    Anyway, in that datasheet, you can find this line:
    “Communication: Pulse-width modulation, 0.75–2.25 ms high pulse, 20 ms intervals”

    That indicates that your PWM frequency should be 1/20ms = 50Hz, with a min duty_cycle of 0.75ms/20ms = 0.0375 and a max of 2.25ms/20 = 0.1125.

    Now let’s look at how you did it:
    Here is info on the python command you are using:
    https://github.com/adafruit/adafruit-beaglebone-io-python

    It looks like that command takes duty cycle as a PERCENTAGE (0-100): I.e., putting in PWM.start(“P8_13″, 12.5, 50), gives you a 20ms period, with the pulse high 12.5% (2.5ms) of the time. That matches (actually a little over) the datasheet’s spec for the PWM communication. Similarly: 4.6% duty cycle => 20ms * 4.6% = 0.92ms.

    From that math above, the duty cycle range I would have expected you to get would be 3.75% to 11.25%

    -Frederick

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